SAE Updates Gasoline Fuel-Injection Standards, Additions Expected

Gasoline Fuel Injection Standards Committee (GFISC) updates three standards and plans to publish two more.

Example of a piezo-electric fuel injector covered by the J2713 standard. (SAE/various suppliers)

The Gasoline Fuel Injection Standards Committee (GFISC) plays a pivotal role in developing and maintaining SAE’s Standards, Recommended Practices (RP) and Information Reports (IR) for the mechanical and electrical components of gasoline fuel-injection systems. Since a prior update was published in May 2019, the committee has made significant progress to ensure the relevancy and accuracy of these standards, with three updated standards published since 2021 and the expected publication of two more in 2024.

Image representing the liquid collected via patternation from a six-plume fuel injector, as shown in J2715. (Nostrum High Performance)
SAE J1537, “Gasoline Low-Pressure Electric Fuel Pump Characterization”

The demand for high-pressure fuel systems has surged with the growth of gasoline direct-injection (GDI) engines, but low-pressure electric fuel pumps located in the fuel tank are still essential. This RP required significant rewriting, with the updating and correction of most of the testing focused on pump durability, temperature cycling and test-fuel selection and compatibility. SAE published the updated version of J1537 in May 2021.

SAE J1832, “Low-Pressure Gasoline Fuel Injector”
Image of an injector’s fuel spray angle, as shown in J2715. (SAE)

Minor changes and revisions improved this RP’s clarity and accuracy. Updates included reformatting the physical-test section, modifying the mechanical shock testing, adding a flow-versus-voltage figure, updating ASTM references and setting the number of test pieces at five for most tests. This revised version was published in February 2023.

SAE J2714, “Gasoline Direct Injection Pumps”

This RP saw major changes, including those regarding corrosion cycling, temperature cycling, vibration, mechanical shock and proof pressure testing and relief-pressure activation. Moderate changes addressed pump noise, internal fluid compatibility, burst pressure and durability test procedures. The number of test cycles also was updated for various procedures. SAE published this version in January 2023.

SAE J2713, “Direct Injection Gasoline Fuel Injector Characterization”

This RP review is focusing on critical aspects of gasoline fuel injectors, including pressure definitions, noise testing, environmental testing and standard test conditions. The update reformats the electrical and physical test sections, and modifies the mechanical shock test, steam spray test, durability-test fluid temperature and dynamic linear flow range (DLFR). It also updates ASTM references and sets the number of test pieces at five for most tests. This RP is expected to undergo balloting before the end of 2023.

SAE J2715, “Gasoline Fuel Injector Spray Measurement and Characterization”

This RP revision raises testing and data reporting standards to align with contemporary industry practices. It introduces recommendations for using spray patternation with GDI, adapts to current industry trends and provides improved methodologies with clearer procedures, detailed spray geometry analysis and simplified drop sizing through laser diffraction. The significant areas of focus include spray geometry assessment, understanding liquid mass distribution and simplified drop-sizing characterization. This revised RP is expected to undergo balloting in 2024.

Example of a solenoid-activated fuel injector covered by the J2713 standard. (SAE/various suppliers)
A typical direct injection, high-pressure gasoline fuel pump as covered by J2714. (AC-Delco)

Committee chairman Lee Markle emphasized the crucial role of the GFISC in addressing the challenges of gasoline fuel-injection standards, which remain vital as the industry transitions to electrification. The GFISC serves as a valuable resource and center of expertise for SAE, OEMs and the powertrain supplier industry. Its impact extends beyond the automotive industry, and participation in the committee's work is open to all interested parties.

Thomas B. Glennan, a member of the GFISC, is the author of this article. He is a retired General Motors fuel systems/powertrain engineer and technical writer for Technical Writing Solutions LLC. In 2024, Glennan celebrates his 50th anniversary as an SAE member.